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Kingswood Secondary Academy

Ofsted Good

Curriculum End Points

Year 7 (Biology);

  • Able to use generalisations as patterns that link concepts together. 
  • State principles as relationships between concepts, such as cause and effect. 
  • Use basic models and systems as groups of concepts connected together in a way that simply describes phenomena. 

Demonstrate knowledge: 

  • The parts of the human skeleton work as a system for support, protection, movement and the production of new blood cells. Antagonistic pairs of muscles create movement when one contracts and the other relaxes. 
  • Multicellular organisms are composed of cells which are organised into tissues, organs and systems to carry out life processes. There are many types of cell. Each has a different structure or feature so it can do a specific job. 
  • Organisms in a food web (decomposers, producers and consumers) depend on each other for nutrients. So, a change in one population leads to changes in others. The population of a species is affected by the number of its predators and prey, disease, pollution and competition between individuals for limited resources such as water and nutrients. 
  • Plants have adaptations to disperse seeds using wind, water or animals. Plants reproduce sexually to produce seeds, which are formed following fertilisation in the ovary. 
  • There is variation between individuals of the same species. Some variation is inherited, some is caused by the environment and some is a combination. Variation between individuals is important for the survival of a species, helping it to avoid extinction in an always changing environment. 
  • The menstrual cycle prepares the female for pregnancy and stops if the egg is fertilised by a sperm. The developing foetus relies on the mother to provide it with oxygen and nutrients, to remove waste and protect it against harmful substances. 

Show skill: 

  • Use a light microscope to observe and draw cells. 
  • Obtain and record a clearly focused image of a microscopic object. 

Recall facts: 

  • Both plant and animal cells have a cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria. Plant cells also have a cell wall, chloroplasts and usually a permanent vacuole. 
  • Insects are needed to pollinate food crops. 
  • Flowers contain the plant’s reproductive organs. 
  • Pollen can be carried by the wind, pollinating insects or other animals. 
  • The menstrual cycle lasts approximately 28 days. 
  • If an egg is fertilised it settles into the uterus lining. 

Apply knowledge to: 

  • Explain how a physical property of part of the skeleton relates to its function. Explain why some organs contain muscle tissue. Explain how antagonistic muscles produce movement around a joint. Use a diagram to predict the result of a muscle contraction or relaxation. 
  • Explain why multi-cellular organisms need organ systems to keep their cells alive. Suggest what kind of tissue or organism a cell is part of, based on its features. Explain how to use a microscope to identify and compare different types of cells. Explain how uni-cellular organisms are adapted to carry out functions that in multi-cellular organisms are done by different types of cell. 
  • Describe how a species’ population changes as its predator or prey population changes. Explain effects of environmental changes and toxic materials on a species’ population. Combine food chains to form a food web. Explain issues with human food supplies in terms of insect pollinators. 
  • Describe the main steps that take place when a plant reproduces successfully. Identify parts of the flower and link their structure to their function. Suggest how a plant carried out seed dispersal based on the features of its fruit or seed. Explain why seed dispersal is important to survival of the parent plant and its offspring. 
  • Explain whether characteristics are inherited, environmental or both. Plot bar charts or line graphs to show discontinuous or continuous variation data. Explain how variation helps a particular species in a changing environment. 
  • Explain how characteristics of a species are adapted to particular environmental conditions. 
  • Explain whether substances are passed from the mother to the foetus or not. Use a diagram to show stages in development of a foetus from the production of sex cells to birth. Describe causes of low fertility in male and female reproductive systems. Identify key events on a diagram of the menstrual cycle. 

Year 7 (Chemistry);

  • Able to use generalisations as patterns that link concepts together. 
  • State principles as relationships between concepts, such as cause and effect. 
  • Use basic models and systems as groups of concepts connected together in a way that simply describes phenomena. 

Demonstrate knowledge: 

  • Properties of solids, liquids and gases can be described in terms of particles in motion but with differences in the arrangement and movement of these same particles: closely spaced and vibrating (solid), in random motion but in contact (liquid), or in random motion and widely spaced (gas). 
  • Observations where substances change  temperature or state can be described in terms of particles gaining or losing energy. 
  • A pure substance consists of only one type of element or compound and has a fixed melting and boiling point. Mixtures may be separated due to differences in their physical properties. The method chosen to separate a mixture depends on which physical properties of the individual substances are different. 
  • Metals and non-metals react with oxygen to form oxides which are either bases or acids. Metals can be arranged as a reactivity series in order of how readily they react with other substances.  Some metals react with acids to produce salts and hydrogen. 
  • The pH of a solution depends on the strength of the acid: strong acids have lower pH values than weak acids. Mixing an acid and alkali produces a chemical reaction, neutralisation, forming a chemical called a salt and water. 
  • Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks can be inter converted over millions of years through weathering and erosion, heat and pressure, and melting and cooling. 

Show skill: 

  • Use techniques to separate ingredients from mixtures using appropriate techniques such as evaporation, filtration and chromatography. 
  • Measure changes in the pH of solutions using indicators. 
  • Carry out practical procedures using instructions with some guidance and in a calm fashion with due regard to the safety of others.  
  • Observe and investigate some chemical reactions using equipment appropriately. 

Recall facts: 

  • A substance is a solid below its melting point, a liquid above it, and a gas above its boiling point. 
  • Air, fruit juice, sea water and milk are mixtures. Liquids have different boiling points. 
  • Iron, nickel and cobalt are magnetic elements. 
  • Mercury is a metal that is liquid at room temperature. Bromine is a non-metal that is liquid at room temperature. 
  • Acids have a pH below 7, neutral solutions have a 
  • pH of 7, alkalis have a pH above 7. Acids and alkalis can be corrosive or irritant and require safe handling. Hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acid are strong acids. Acetic and citric acid are weak acids. 
  • The three rock layers inside Earth are the crust, the mantle and the core. 

Apply knowledge to: 

  • Explain unfamiliar observations about gas pressure in terms of particles. Explain the properties of solids, liquids and gases based on the arrangement and movement of their particles. Explain changes in states in terms of changes to the energy of particles. Draw before and after diagrams of particles to explain observations about changes of state, gas pressure and diffusion. 
  • Explain how substances dissolve using the particle model. Use the solubility curve of a solute to explain observations about solutions. 
  • Use evidence from chromatography to identify unknown substances in mixtures. Choose the most suitable technique to separate out a mixture of substances. 
  • Describe an oxidation, displacement, or metalacid reaction with a word equation. Use particle diagrams to represent oxidation, displacement  and metal-acid reactions. Identify an unknown element from its physical and chemical properties. Place an unfamiliar metal into the reactivity series based on information about its reactions. 
  • Identify the best indicator to distinguish between solutions of different pH, using data provided. 
  • Use data and observations to determine the pH of a solution and explain what this shows. Explain how neutralisation reactions are used in a range of situations. Describe a method for how to make a neutral solution from an acid and alkali. 
  • Explain why a rock has a particular property based on how it was formed. Identify the causes of weathering and erosion and describe how they occur. Construct a labelled diagram to identify the processes of the rock cycle. 

Year 7 (Physics);

  • Able to use generalisations as patterns that link concepts together. 
  • State principles as relationships between concepts, such as cause and effect. 
  • Use basic models and systems as groups of concepts connected together in a way that simply describes phenomena. 

Demonstrate knowledge: 

  • If the overall, resultant force on an object is non-zero, its motion changes and it slows down, speeds up or changes direction.  Mass and weight are different but related. Mass is a property of the object; weight depends upon mass but also on gravitational field strength. 
  • Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object. The force increases with mass and decreases with distance. Gravity holds planets and moons in orbit around larger bodies. 
  • We can model voltage as an electrical push from the battery, or the amount of energy per unit of charge transferred through the electrical pathway. In a series circuit, voltage is shared between each component. In a parallel circuit, voltage is the same across each loop. Components with resistance reduce the current flowing and shift energy to the surroundings. 
  • Current is a movement of electrons and is the same everywhere in a series circuit. Current divides between loops in a parallel circuit, combines when loops meet, lights up bulbs and makes components work. Around a charged object, the electric field affects other charged objects, causing them to be attracted or repelled. The field strength decreases with distance. 
  • We pay for our domestic electricity usage based on the amount of energy transferred. 
  • Electricity is generated by a combination of resources which each have advantages and disadvantages. 
  • We can describe how jobs get done using an energy model where energy is transferred from one store at the start to another at the end. 
  • When energy is transferred, the total is conserved, but some energy is dissipated, reducing the useful energy. 
  • Sound consists of vibrations which travel as a longitudinal wave through substances. The denser the medium, the faster sound travels. 
  • The greater the amplitude of the waveform, the louder the sound. The greater the frequency (and therefore the shorter the wavelength), the higher the pitch. 
  • When a light ray meets a different medium, some of it is absorbed and some reflected. For a mirror, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. The ray model can describe the formation of an image in a mirror and how objects appear different colours. When light enters a denser medium it bends towards the normal; when it enters a less dense medium it bends away from the normal. Refraction through lenses and prisms can be described using a ray diagram as a model. 
  • The solar system can be modelled as planets rotating on tilted axes while orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets and sunlight spreading out and being reflected. This explains day and year length, seasons and the visibility of objects from Earth. Our solar system is a tiny part of a galaxy, one of many billions in the Universe. Light takes minutes to reach Earth from the Sun, four years from our nearest star and billions of years from other galaxies. 

Show skill: 

  • Heat a measured volume of water until almost boiling, having selected and used appropriate Equipment. 
  • Find out at regular intervals the temperature of water being heated and tabulate observations to reveal the pattern. 
  • Measure the speed of a moving object using appropriate equipment. 
  • Build electrical circuits using various components and measure current and voltage using an ammeter and voltmeter. 
  • Represent and interpret a range of simple circuit diagrams using appropriate symbols. 
  • Use the formula: speed = distance (m)/time (s) or distance-time graphs, to calculate speed. 
  • Use the formula: weight (N) = mass (kg) x gravitational field strength (N/kg). 
  • Calculate resistance using the formula: resistance (Ω) = potential difference (V) ÷ current (A). 
  • Calculate the cost of home energy usage, using the formula: cost = power (kW ) x time (hours) x price (per kWh). 
  • Construct ray diagrams to show how light reflects off mirrors, forms images and refracts. 

Recall facts: 

  • A straight line on a distance-time graph shows constant speed, a curving line shows acceleration. The higher the speed of an object, the shorter the time taken for a journey. 
  • g on Earth = 10 N/kg. On the moon it is 1.6 N/kg. 
  • Two similarly charged objects repel, two differently charged objects attract. 
  • Food labels list the energy content of food in kilojoules (kJ). 
  • Sound does not travel through a vacuum. 
  • The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s, a million times slower than light. 
  • Light travels at 300 million metres per second in a vacuum. Different colours of light have different frequencies. 

Apply knowledge to: 

  • Illustrate a journey with changing speed on a distance-time graph, and label changes in motion.  
  • Describe how the speed of an object varies when measured by observers who are not moving, or moving relative to the object. 
  • Explain unfamiliar observations where weight changes. Draw a force diagram for a problem involving gravity. Deduce how gravity varies for different masses and distances. Compare your weight on Earth with your weight on different planets using the formula. 
  • Draw a circuit diagram to show how voltage can be measured in a simple circuit. Use the idea of energy to explain how voltage and resistance affect the way components work. Given a table of voltage against current. Use the ratio of voltage to current to determine the resistance. Use an analogy like water in pipes to explain why part of a circuit has higher resistance. 
  • Describe how current changes in series and parallel circuits when components are changed. 
  • Turn circuit diagrams into real series and parallel circuits, and vice versa. Describe what happens when charged objects are placed near to each other or touching. Use a sketch to describe how an object charged positively or negatively became charged up. 
  • Compare the amounts of energy transferred by different foods and activities. Compare the energy usage and cost of running different home devices. Explain the advantages and  disadvantages of different energy resources. 
  • Represent the energy transfers from a renewable or non-renewable resource to an electrical device in the home. 
  • Describe how the energy of an object depends on its speed, temperature, height or whether it is stretched or compressed. Show how energy is transferred between energy stores in a range of real-life examples. Calculate the useful energy and the amount dissipated, given values of input and output energy. Explain how energy is dissipated in a range of situations. 
  • Explain observations where sound is reflected, transmitted or absorbed by different media. 
  • Explain observations of how sound travels using the idea of a longitudinal wave. Describe the amplitude and frequency of a wave from a diagram or oscilloscope picture. Use drawings of waves to describe how sound waves change with volume or pitch. 
  • Use ray diagrams of eclipses to describe what is seen by observers in different places. Explain observations where coloured lights are mixed or objects are viewed in different lights. Use ray diagrams to describe how light passes through lenses and transparent materials. Describe how lenses may be used to correct vision. 
  • Describe the appearance of planets or moons from diagrams showing their position in relation to the Earth and Sun. Explain why places on the Earth experience different daylight hours and amounts of sunlight during the year. Describe how space exploration and observations of stars are affected by the scale of the universe. Explain the choice of particular units for measuring distance. 

Year 8 (Biology);

  • Develop the use of generalisations as patterns that link concepts together. 
  • State more principles as relationships between concepts, such as cause and effect. 
  • Use further models and systems as groups of concepts connected together in a way that simply describes phenomena. 

Demonstrate knowledge: 

  • In gas exchange, oxygen and carbon dioxide move between alveoli and the blood. Oxygen is transported to cells for aerobic respiration and carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, is removed from the body. Breathing occurs through the action of muscles in the ribcage and diaphragm. The amount of oxygen required by body cells determines the rate of breathing. 
  • The body needs a balanced diet with carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins,  minerals, dietary fibre and water, for its cells’ energy, growth and maintenance. Organs of the digestive system are adapted to break large food molecules into small ones which can travel in the blood to cells and are used for life processes. 
  • Respiration is a series of chemical reactions, in cells, that breaks down glucose to provide energy and form new molecules. Most living things use aerobic respiration but switch to anaerobic respiration, which provides less energy, when oxygen is unavailable. 
  • Plants and algae do not eat, but use energy from light, together with carbon dioxide and water to make glucose (food) through photosynthesis. They either use the glucose as an energy source, to build new tissue, or store it for later use. 
  • Plants have specially-adapted organs that allow them to obtain resources needed for photosynthesis. 
  • Natural selection is a theory that explains how species evolve and why extinction occurs. Biodiversity is vital to maintaining populations. 
  • Within a species variation helps against environment changes, avoiding extinction. 
  • Within an ecosystem, having many different species ensures resources are available for other populations, like humans. 
  • Inherited characteristics are the result of genetic information, in the form of sections of DNA called genes, being transferred from parents to offspring during reproduction. Chromosomes are long pieces of DNA which contain many genes. Gametes, carrying half the total number of chromosomes of each parent, combine during fertilisation. 

Show skill: 

  • Sketch a line graph, to an appropriate scale. 

Recall facts: 

  • Iron is a mineral important for red blood cells. 
  • Calcium is a mineral needed for strong teeth and bones. Vitamins and minerals are needed in small amounts to keep the body healthy. 
  • Yeast fermentation is used in brewing and breadmaking. 
  • Iodine is used to test for the presence of starch. 
  • The DNA of every individual is different, except for identical twins. There is more than one version of each gene eg different blood groups. 

Apply knowledge to: 

  • Explain how exercise, smoking and asthma affect the gas exchange system. Explain how the parts of the gas exchange system are adapted to their function. Explain observations about changes to breathing rate and volume. Explain how changes in volume and pressure inside the chest move gases in and out of the lungs. 
  • Describe possible health effects of unbalanced diets from data provided. Calculate food requirements for a healthy diet, using  information provided. Describe how organs and tissues involved in digestion are adapted for their role. Describe the events that take place in order to turn a meal into simple food molecules inside a cell. 
  • Use word equations to describe aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Explain how specific activities involve aerobic or anaerobic respiration. 
  • Describe ways in which plants obtain resources for photosynthesis. Explain why other organisms are dependent on photosynthesis. Sketch a line graph to show how the rate of photosynthesis is affected by changing conditions. Use a word equation to describe photosynthesis in plants and algae. 
  • Use evidence to explain why a species has become extinct or adapted to changing conditions. Evaluate whether evidence for a species changing over time supports natural selection. Explain how a lack of biodiversity can affect an ecosystem. Describe how preserving biodiversity can provide useful products and services for humans. 
  • Use a diagram to show the relationship between DNA, chromosomes and genes. Use a diagram to show how genes are inherited. Explain how a change in the DNA (mutation) may affect an organism and its future offspring. Explain why offspring from the same parents look similar but are not usually identical. 

Year 8 (Chemistry);

  • Develop the use of generalisations as patterns that link concepts together. 
  • State more principles as relationships between concepts, such as cause and effect. 
  • Use further models and systems as groups of concepts connected together in a way that simply describes phenomena. 

Demonstrate knowledge: 

  • The elements in a group all react in a similar way and sometimes show a pattern in reactivity. 
  • As you go down a group and across a period the elements show patterns in physical properties. 
  • Most substances are not pure elements, but compounds or mixtures containing atoms of different elements. They have different properties to the elements they contain. 
  • During a chemical reaction bonds are broken (requiring energy) and new bonds formed (releasing energy). If the energy released is greater than the energy required, the reaction is exothermic. If the reverse, it is endothermic. 
  • Combustion is a reaction with oxygen in which energy is transferred to the surroundings as heat and light. Thermal decomposition is a reaction where a single reactant is broken down into simpler products by heating. Chemical changes can be described by a model where atoms and molecules in reactants rearrange to make the products and the total number of atoms is conserved. 
  • Carbon is recycled through natural processes in the atmosphere, ecosystems, oceans and the Earth’s crust (such as photosynthesis and respiration) as well as human activities (burning fuels). Greenhouse gases reduce the amount of energy lost from the Earth through radiation and therefore the temperature has been rising as the concentration of those gases has risen. Scientists have evidence that global warming caused by human activity is causing changes in climate. 
  • There is only a certain quantity of any resource on Earth, so the faster it is extracted, the sooner it will run out. Recycling reduces the need to extract resources. Most metals are found combined with other elements, as a compound, in ores. The more reactive a metal, the more difficult it is to separate it from its compound. Carbon displaces less reactive metals, while electrolysis is needed for more reactive metals. 

Show skill: 

  • Use particle diagrams to classify a substance as an element, mixture or compound and as molecules or atoms. Name simple compounds using rules: change non-metal to –ide; mono, di, tri prefixes; and symbols of hydroxide, nitrate, sulfate and carbonate. 
  • Write word equations from information about chemical reactions. 
  • Carry out practical procedures using instructions without guidance and in a calm fashion with due regard to the safety of others. 
  • Observe and investigate a range of chemical reactions using equipment appropriately. 

Recall facts: 

  • Metals are generally found on the left side of the table, non-metals on the right. Group 1 contains reactive metals called alkali metals. Group 7 contains non-metals called halogens. Group 0 contains unreactive gases called noble gases. 
  • The symbols of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, iron, zinc, copper, sulfur, aluminium, iodine, bromine, chlorine, sodium, potassium and magnesium. 
  • Methane and carbon dioxide are greenhouse gases. Earth’s atmosphere contains around 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, <1% carbon dioxide, plus small amounts of other gases. 

Apply knowledge to: 

  • Use data to describe a trend in physical properties. Describe the reaction of an unfamiliar Group 1 or 7 element. Use data showing a pattern in physical properties to estimate a missing value for an element. Use observations of a pattern in chemical reactions to predict the behaviour of an element in a group. 
  • Name compounds using their chemical formulae. 
  • Given chemical formulae, name the elements present and their relative proportions. Represent atoms, molecules and elements, mixtures and compounds using particle diagrams. Use observations from chemical reactions to decide if an unknown substance is an element or a compound. 
  • Use experimental observations to distinguish exothermic and endothermic reactions. 
  • Use a diagram of relative energy levels of particles to explain energy changes observed during a change of state. 
  • Explain why a reaction is an example of combustion or thermal decomposition. Predict the products of the combustion or thermal decomposition of a given reactant and show the reaction as a word equation. Explain observations about mass in a chemical or physical change. Use particle diagrams to show what happens in a reaction. 
  • Use a diagram to show how carbon is recycled in the environment and through living things. Describe how human activities affect the carbon cycle. Describe how global warming can impact on climate and local weather patterns. 
  • Explain why recycling of some materials is particularly important. Describe how Earth’s resources are turned into useful materials or recycled. Justify the choice of extraction method for a metal, given data about reactivity. Suggest factors to take into account when deciding whether extraction of a metal is practical. 

Year 8 (Physics);

  • Develop the use of generalisations as patterns that link concepts together. 
  • State more principles as relationships between concepts, such as cause and effect. 
  • Use further models and systems as groups of concepts connected together in a way that simply describes phenomena. 

Demonstrate knowledge: 

  • When the resultant force on an object is zero, it is in equilibrium and does not move, or remains at constant speed in a straight line. One effect of a force is to change an object’s form, causing it to be stretched or compressed. In some materials, the change is proportional to the force applied. 
  • Pressure acts in a fluid in all directions. It increases with depth due to the increased weight of fluid, and results in an upthrust. Objects sink or float depending on whether the weight of the object is bigger or smaller than the upthrust. Different stresses on a solid object can be used to explain observations where objects scratch, sink into or break surfaces. 
  • An electromagnet uses the principle that a current through a wire causes a magnetic field. Its strength depends on the current, the core and the number of coils in the solenoid. 
  • Magnetic materials, electromagnets and the Earth create magnetic fields which can be described by drawing field lines to show the strength and direction. The stronger the magnet, and the smaller the distance from it, the greater the force a magnetic object in the field experiences. 
  • Work is done and energy transferred when a force moves an object. The bigger the force or distance, the greater the work. Machines make work easier by reducing the force needed. Levers and pulleys do this by increasing the distance moved, and wheels reduce friction. 
  • The thermal energy of an object depends upon its mass, temperature and what it’s made of. When there is a temperature difference, energy transfers from the hotter to the cooler object. 
  • Thermal energy is transferred through different pathways, by particles in conduction and convection, and by radiation. 
  • When a wave travels through a substance, particles move to and fro. Energy is transferred in the direction of movement of the wave. Waves of higher amplitude or higher frequency transfer more energy. 
  • A physical model of a transverse wave demonstrates it moves from place to place, while the material it travels through does not, and describes the properties of speed, wavelength and reflection. 

Show skill: 

  • Sketch the forces acting on an object and label their size and direction. 
  • Use the formula: fluid pressure, or stress on a surface = force (N)/area (m2 ). 
  • Separate ingredients from mixtures using appropriate techniques such as magnets. 

Recall facts: 

  • The magnetic field of an electromagnet decreases in strength with distance. 
  • Two ‘like’ magnetic poles repel and two ‘unlike’ magnetic poles attract. Field lines flow from the north-seeking pole to the south-seeking pole. 

Apply knowledge to: 

  • Explain whether an object in an unfamiliar situation is in equilibrium. Describe factors which affect the size of frictional and drag forces. Describe how materials behave as they are stretched or squashed. Describe what happens to the length of a spring when the force on it  changes. 
  • Use diagrams to explain observations of fluids in terms of unequal pressure. Explain why objects either sink or float depending upon their weight and the upthrust acting on them. Explain observations where the effects of forces are different because of differences in the area over which they apply. Given unfamiliar situations, use the formula to calculate fluid pressure or stress on a surface. 
  • Use a diagram to explain how an electromagnet can be made and how to change its strength. 
  • Explain the choice of electromagnets or permanent magnets for a device in terms of their properties 
  • Use the idea of field lines to show how the direction or strength of the field around a magnet varies. Explain observations about navigation using Earth’s magnetic field. 
  • Draw a diagram to explain how a lever makes a job easier. Compare the work needed to move objects different distances. 
  • Explain observations about changing temperature in terms of energy transfer. Describe how an object’s temperature changes over time when heated or cooled. Explain how a method of thermal insulation works in terms of conduction, convection and radiation. Sketch diagrams to show convection currents in unfamiliar situations. 
  • Explain differences in the damage done to living cells by light and other waves, in terms of their frequency. Explain how audio equipment converts sound into a changing pattern of electric current. 
  • Describe the properties of different longitudinal and transverse waves. Use the wave model to explain observations of the reflection, absorption and transmission of a wave.  

Year 9 (Biology);

  • Begin to demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding and apply these to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using scientific terminology. 
  • Start to develop accurate and logical descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a limited range of mathematical skills. 
  • Analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical conclusions. 
  • Learn to evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 
  • In addition to the end points from Years 7 and 8, be able to demonstrate: 
  • Cells are the basic unit of all forms of life. In this section we explore how structural differences between types of cells enables them to perform specific functions within the organism. These differences in cells are controlled by genes in the nucleus. For an organism to grow, cells must divide by mitosis producing two new identical cells. If cells are isolated at an early stage of growth before they have become too specialised, they can retain their ability to grow into a range of different types of cells. This phenomenon has led to the development of stem cell technology. This is a new branch of medicine that allows doctors to repair damaged organs by growing new tissue from stem cells. 
  • In this section we will learn about the human digestive system which provides the body with nutrients and the respiratory system that provides it with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. In 26 Visit aqa.org.uk/8464 for the most up-to-date specification, resources, support and administration each case they provide dissolved materials that need to be moved quickly around the body in the blood by the circulatory system. Damage to any of these systems can be debilitating if not fatal. Although there has been huge progress in surgical techniques, especially with regard to coronary heart disease, many interventions would not be necessary if individuals reduced their risks through improved diet and lifestyle. We will also learn how the plant’s transport system is dependent on environmental conditions to ensure  that leaf cells are provided with the water and carbon dioxide that they need for photosynthesis. 
  • In this section we will explore how plants harness the Sun’s energy in photosynthesis in order to make food. This process liberates oxygen which has built up over millions of years in the Earth’s atmosphere. Both animals and plants use this oxygen to oxidise food in a process called aerobic respiration which transfers the energy that the organism needs to perform its functions. 
  • Conversely, anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen to transfer energy. During vigorous exercise the human body is unable to supply the cells with sufficient oxygen and it switches to anaerobic respiration. This process will supply energy but also causes the build-up of lactic acid in muscles which causes fatigue. 

Year 9 (Chemistry);

  • Begin to demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding and apply these to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using scientific terminology. 
  • Start to develop accurate and logical descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a limited range of mathematical skills. 
  • Analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical conclusions. 
  • Learn to evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Years 7 and 8, be able to demonstrate: 

  • The periodic table provides chemists with a structured organisation of the known chemical elements from which they can make sense of their physical and chemical properties. The historical development of the periodic table and models of atomic structure provide good examples of how scientific ideas and explanations develop over time as new evidence emerges. The arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table can be explained in terms of atomic structure which provides evidence for the model of a nuclear atom with electrons in energy levels. 
  • Chemists use theories of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials. Analysis of structures shows that atoms can be arranged in a variety of ways, some of which are molecular while others are giant structures. Theories of bonding explain how atoms are held together in these structures. Scientists use this knowledge of structure and bonding to engineer new materials with desirable properties. The properties of these materials may offer new applications in a range of different technologies. 
  • Energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic. These interactions between particles can produce heating or cooling effects that are used in a range of everyday applications. Some interactions between ions in an electrolyte result in the production of electricity. Cells and batteries use these chemical reactions to provide electricity. Electricity can also be used to decompose ionic substances and is a useful means of producing elements that are too expensive to extract any other way. 

Year 9 (Physics);

  • Begin to demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding and apply these to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using scientific terminology. 
  • Start to develop accurate and logical descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a limited range of mathematical skills. 
  • Analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical conclusions. 
  • Learn to evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Years 7 and 8, be able to demonstrate: 

  • The concept of energy emerged in the 19th century. The idea was used to explain the work output of steam engines and then generalised to understand other heat engines. It also became a key tool for understanding chemical reactions and biological systems. Limits to the use of fossil fuels and global warming are critical problems for this century. Physicists and engineers are working hard to identify ways to reduce our energy usage. 
  • Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter everywhere. Understanding the difference in the microstructure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators makes it possible to design components and build electric circuits. Many circuits are powered with mains electricity, but portable electrical devices must use batteries of some kind. Electrical power fills the modern world with artificial light and sound, information and entertainment, remote sensing and control. The fundamentals of electromagnetism were worked out by scientists of the 19th century. However, power stations, like all machines, have a limited lifetime. If we all continue to demand more electricity this means building new power stations in every generation – but what mix of power stations can promise a sustainable future? 

Year 10 (Biology);

  • Demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding and apply these to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using accurate scientific  terminology. 
  • Develop accurate and logical descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a range of mathematical skills to perform complex, multi-step scientific calculations. 
  • Critically analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical conclusions. 
  • Evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Year 9, be able to demonstrate: 

  • Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria that cause infectious diseases in animals and plants. They depend on their host to provide the conditions and nutrients that they need to grow and reproduce. They frequently produce toxins that damage tissues and make us feel ill. This section will explore how we can avoid diseases by reducing contact with them, as well as how the body uses barriers against pathogens. Once inside the body our immune system is triggered which is usually strong enough to destroy the pathogen and prevent disease. When at risk from unusual or dangerous diseases our body's natural system can be enhanced by the use of vaccination. Since the 1940s a range of antibiotics have been developed which have proved successful against a number of lethal diseases caused by bacteria. Unfortunately, many groups of bacteria have now become resistant to these antibiotics. The race is now on to develop a new set of antibiotics. 
  • Cells in the body can only survive within narrow physical and chemical limits. They require a constant temperature and pH as well as a constant supply of dissolved food and water. In order to do this the body requires control systems that constantly monitor and adjust the composition of the blood and tissues. These control systems include receptors which sense changes and effectors that bring about changes. In this section we will explore the structure and function of the nervous system and how it can bring about fast responses. We will also explore the hormonal system which usually brings about much slower changes. Hormonal coordination is particularly important in reproduction since it controls the menstrual cycle. An understanding of the role of hormones in reproduction has allowed scientists to develop not only contraceptive drugs but also drugs which can increase fertility. 
  • The Sun is a source of energy that passes through ecosystems. Materials including carbon and water are continually recycled by the living world, being released through respiration of animals, plants and decomposing microorganisms and taken up by plants in photosynthesis. All species live in ecosystems composed of complex communities of animals and plants dependent on each other and that are adapted to particular conditions, both abiotic and biotic. These ecosystems provide essential services that support human life and continued development. In order to continue to benefit from these services humans need to engage with the environment in a sustainable way. In this section we will explore how humans are threatening biodiversity as well as the natural systems that support it. We will also consider some actions we need to take to ensure our future health, prosperity and well-being. 

Year 10 (Chemistry);

  • Demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding and apply these to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using accurate scientific  terminology. 
  • Develop accurate and logical descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a range of mathematical skills to perform complex, multi-step scientific calculations. 
  • Critically analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical conclusions. 
  • Evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Year 9, be able to demonstrate: 

  • Chemists use quantitative analysis to determine the formulae of compounds and the equations for reactions. Given this information, analysts can then use quantitative methods to determine the purity of chemical samples and to monitor the yield from chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can be classified in various ways. Identifying different types of chemical reaction allows chemists to make sense of how different chemicals react together, to establish patterns and to make predictions about the behaviour of other chemicals. Chemical equations provide a means of representing chemical reactions and are a key way for chemists to communicate chemical ideas. 
  • Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organizing their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’. 
  • Chemical reactions can occur at vastly different rates. Whilst the reactivity of chemicals is a significant factor in how fast chemical reactions proceed, there are many variables that can be manipulated in order to speed them up or slow them down. Chemical reactions may also be reversible and therefore the effect of different variables needs to be established in order to identify how to maximise the yield of desired product. Understanding energy changes that accompany chemical reactions is important for this process. In industry, chemists and chemical engineers determine the effect of different variables on reaction rate and yield of product. Whilst there may be compromises to be made, they carry out optimisation processes to ensure that enough product is produced within a sufficient time, and in an energy-efficient way. 
  • Analysts have developed a range of qualitative tests to detect specific chemicals. The tests are based on reactions that produce a gas with distinctive properties, or a colour change or an insoluble solid that appears as a precipitate. 
  • Instrumental methods provide fast, sensitive and accurate means of analysing chemicals, and are particularly useful when the amount of chemical being analysed is small. Forensic scientists and drug control scientists rely on such instrumental methods in their work. 

Year 10 (Physics);

  • Demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding and apply these to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using accurate scientific  terminology. 
  • Develop accurate and logical descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a range of mathematical skills to perform complex, multi-step scientific calculations. 
  • Critically analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical conclusions. 
  • Evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Year 9, be able to demonstrate: 

  • The particle model is widely used to predict the behaviour of solids, liquids and gases and this has many applications in everyday life. It helps us to explain a wide range of observations and engineers use these principles when designing vessels to withstand high pressures and temperatures, such as submarines and spacecraft. It also explains why it is difficult to make a good cup of tea high up a mountain! 
  • Ionising radiation is hazardous but can be very useful. Although radioactivity was discovered over a century ago, it took many nuclear physicists several decades to understand the structure of atoms, nuclear forces and stability. Early researchers suffered from their exposure to ionising radiation. Rules for radiological protection were first introduced in the 1930s and subsequently improved. Today radioactive materials are widely used in medicine, industry, agriculture and electrical power generation. 
  • Engineers analyse forces when designing a great variety of machines and instruments, from road bridges and fairground rides to atomic force microscopes. Anything mechanical can be analysed in this way. Recent developments in artificial limbs use the analysis of forces to make movement possible. 

Year 11 (Biology);

  • Demonstrate relevant and comprehensive knowledge and understanding and apply these correctly to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using accurate scientific  terminology. 
  • Develop accurate, logical and detailed descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a range of mathematical skills to perform complex, multi-step scientific calculations. 
  • Critically analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical, well-evidenced conclusions. 
  • Critically evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Years 9 and 10, be able to demonstrate: 

  • In this section we will discover how the number of chromosomes are halved during meiosis and then combined with new genes from the sexual partner to produce unique offspring. Gene mutations occur continuously and on rare occasions can affect the functioning of the animal or plant. These mutations may be damaging and lead to a number of genetic disorders or death. Very rarely a new mutation can be beneficial and consequently, lead to increased fitness in the individual. Variation generated by mutations and sexual reproduction is the basis for natural selection; this is how species evolve. An understanding of these processes has allowed scientists to intervene through selective breeding to produce livestock with favoured characteristics. Once new varieties of plants or animals have been produced it is possible to clone individuals to produce larger numbers of identical individuals all carrying the favourable characteristic. Scientists have now discovered how to take genes from one species and introduce them in to the genome of another by a process called genetic engineering. In spite of the huge potential benefits that this technology can offer, genetic modification still remains highly controversial. 

Year 11 (Chemistry);

  • Demonstrate relevant and comprehensive knowledge and understanding and apply these correctly to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using accurate scientific  terminology. 
  • Develop accurate, logical and detailed descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a range of mathematical skills to perform complex, multi-step scientific calculations. 
  • Critically analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical, well-evidenced conclusions. 
  • Critically evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Years 9 and 10, be able to demonstrate: 

  • The chemistry of carbon compounds is so important that it forms a separate branch of chemistry. A great variety of carbon compounds is possible because carbon atoms can form chains and rings linked by C-C bonds. This branch of chemistry gets its name from the fact that the main sources of organic compounds are living, or once-living materials from plants and animals. These sources include fossil fuels which are a major source of feedstock for the petrochemical industry. Chemists are able to take organic molecules and modify them in many ways to make new and useful materials such as polymers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes and flavourings, dyes and detergents. 
  • The Earth’s atmosphere is dynamic and forever changing. The causes of these changes are sometimes man-made and sometimes part of many natural cycles. Scientists use very complex software to predict weather and climate change as there are many variables that can influence this. The problems caused by increased levels of air pollutants require scientists and engineers to develop solutions that help to reduce the impact of human activity. 
  • Industries use the Earth’s natural resources to manufacture useful products. In order to operate sustainably, chemists seek to minimise the use of limited resources, use of energy, waste and environmental impact in the manufacture of these products. Chemists also aim to develop ways of disposing of products at the end of their useful life in ways that ensure that materials and stored energy are utilised. Pollution, disposal of waste products and changing land use has a significant effect on the environment, and environmental chemists study how human activity has affected the Earth’s natural cycles, and how damaging effects can be minimised.

Year 11 (Physics);

  • Demonstrate relevant and comprehensive knowledge and understanding and apply these correctly to both familiar and unfamiliar contexts using accurate scientific  terminology. 
  • Develop accurate, logical and detailed descriptions, explanations and arguments. 
  • Use a range of mathematical skills to perform complex, multi-step scientific calculations. 
  • Critically analyse qualitative and quantitative data and draw logical, well-evidenced conclusions. 
  • Critically evaluate and refine methodologies, and judge the validity of scientific conclusions. 

In addition to the end points from Years 9 and 10, be able to demonstrate: 

  • Wave behaviour is common in both natural and man-made systems. Waves carry energy from one place to another and can also carry information. Designing comfortable and safe structures such as bridges, houses and music performance halls requires an understanding of mechanical waves. Modern technologies such as imaging and communication systems show how we can make the most of electromagnetic waves. 
  • Electromagnetic effects are used in a wide variety of devices. Engineers make use of the fact that a magnet moving in a coil can produce electric current and also that when current flows around a magnet it can produce movement. It means that systems that involve control or communications can take full advantage of this. 
  • In GCSE Physics, Space Physics topic: consider questions about where we are, and where we came from, have been asked for thousands of years. In the past century, astronomers and astrophysicists have made remarkable progress in understanding the scale and structure of the universe, its evolution and ours. New questions have emerged recently. ‘Dark matter’, which bends light and holds galaxies together but does not emit electromagnetic radiation, is everywhere – what is it? And what is causing the universe to expand ever faster? 

Year 12 (Biology);

- Appreciate all living organisms have similarities in cellular structure, biochemistry and function.  

- Use microscopy to study the cell structure of a variety of organisms. Demonstrate knowledge of biologically important molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, water and nucleic acids with respect to their structure and function. 

- Know the structure and mode of action of enzymes in catalysing biochemical reactions. 

- Appreciate how membranes form barriers within, and at the surface of, cells.  

- Consider how the structure of membranes relates to the different methods by which molecules enter and leave cells and organelles. 

- Explain how division and subsequent specialisation of cells occurs, together with the potential for the therapeutic use of stem cells. 

- Study the structure and function of gas exchange and transport systems in a range of animals and in terrestrial plants. 

- Explain the significance of surface area to volume ratio in determining the need for ventilation, gas exchange and transport systems in multicellular organisms. 

- Give examples of terrestrial green plants and a range of animal phyla are used to illustrate the principle above. 

- Demonstrate study of biodiversity of organisms; how they are classified and the ways in which biodiversity can be measured. 

- Emphasise practical techniques in the study of ecology. 

- Demonstrate an appreciation of the need to maintain biodiversity.  

- Gain an understanding of the variety of organisms that are pathogenic and the way in which plants and animals have evolved defences to deal with disease.  

- Consider the impact of the evolution of pathogens on the treatment of disease. 

- Show knowledge of the relationships between organisms, considering variation, evolution and phylogeny. 

 - Demonstrate detailed and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures in the specification. 

- Select information from the specification that is relevant to each question. 

- Organise and concisely communicate information, using appropriate scientific terminology. 

- Carry out simple calculations with no guidance. 

- Apply scientific knowledge, principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts involving a few steps in the argument when handling qualitative data. 

- Give explanations that are lucid and well-structured. 

- Carry out most structured calculations involving several steps, yielding results that are usually error free and expressed to an appropriate precision. 

- Use appropriate technical language and scientific terms in unfamiliar contexts. 

- Demonstrate a firm grasp of the scientific reasons for using a range of practical procedures mentioned in the specification. 

- Predict the outcome of practical procedures in familiar contexts. 

- Select appropriate information and evidence (both quantitative and qualitative) to form a judgement or to reach a conclusion. 

- Fully justify a judgement or conclusion using any given statistical information. 

- Analyse a broad variety of information and evidence, accurately selecting an appropriate range of techniques drawn from theoretical and practical areas of the specification. 

- Interpret and evaluate ideas, information and evidence using accurate explanations of complex phenomena within the scope of the specification. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to discuss the behaviour of a system when its parameters change. 

- Develop and refine practical designs and procedures. 

- Suggest and make observations and measurements with appropriate precision and record these appropriately. 

- Discuss a range of issues fluently with knowledge and understanding

Year 12 (Chemistry);

- Appreciate chemistry is a practical subject and the development of practical skills is fundamental to understanding the nature of chemistry.  

- Gain knowledge and understanding of the important chemical ideas that underpin the study of chemistry, such as atomic structure, quantitative chemistry: formulae, equations, amount of substance and the mole, reactions of acids, oxidation number and redox reaction, and bonding and structure. 

- Develop important quantitative techniques involved in measuring masses, gas and solution volumes, including use of volumetric apparatus. 

- Develop mathematical skills during the study of amount of substance and when carrying out quantitative practical work.  

- Study inorganic and physical Chemistry. 

- Show how the applications of energy are used in everyday life and industrial processes. 

- Appreciate current environmental concerns associated with sustainability. 

- Demonstrate the underpinning study of: the periodic table: periodic and group properties, enthalpy changes and their determination, rates of reaction,  reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium and consideration of energy and yield in improving sustainability. 

- Develop important qualitative practical skills, especially observational skills required for analysis, and accurate quantitative techniques involved in determination of energy changes and reaction rates. 

- Develop mathematical skills when studying enthalpy changes and reaction rates and when carrying out quantitative practical work. 

- Appreciate organic chemistry and its important applications to everyday life, including current environmental concerns associated with sustainability. 

- Show knowledge and understanding of the important chemical ideas that underpin the study of organic chemistry: nomenclature and formula representation, functional groups, organic reactions and isomerism, aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and haloalkanes,  organic practical skills and organic synthesis plus the instrumental analytical techniques that provide evidence of structural features in molecules. 

- Develop important organic practical skills, including use of Quickfit apparatus for distillation, heating under reflux and purification of organic liquids. 

- Appreciate the need to consider responsible use of organic chemicals in the environment. 

- Detail current trends in this context include reducing demand for hydrocarbon fuels, processing plastic waste productively and preventing use of ozone-depleting chemicals. 

- Demonstrate detailed and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures in the specification. 

- Select information from the specification that is relevant to each question. 

- Organise and concisely communicate information, using appropriate scientific terminology. 

- Carry out simple calculations with no guidance. 

- Apply scientific knowledge, principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts involving a few steps in the argument when handling qualitative data. 

- Give explanations that are lucid and well-structured. 

- Carry out most structured calculations involving several steps, yielding results that are usually error free and expressed to an appropriate precision. 

- Use appropriate technical language and scientific terms in unfamiliar contexts. 

- Demonstrate a firm grasp of the scientific reasons for using a range of practical procedures mentioned in the specification. 

- Predict the outcome of practical procedures in familiar contexts. 

- Use accurate chemical equations and structures in a range of contexts. 

- Select appropriate information and evidence (both quantitative and qualitative) to form a judgement or to reach a conclusion. 

- Analyse a broad variety of information and evidence, accurately selecting an appropriate range of techniques drawn from theoretical and practical areas of the specification. 

- Interpret and evaluate ideas, information and evidence using accurate explanations of complex phenomena within the scope of the specification. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to discuss the behaviour of a system when its parameters change. 

- Develop and refine practical designs and procedures. 

- Suggest and make observations and measurements with appropriate precision and record these appropriately. 

- Discuss a range of issues fluently with knowledge and understanding. 

Year 12 (Physics);

-Show knowledge of important conventions and ideas that permeate the fabric of physics.  

- Gain an understanding of physical quantities, S.I. units, scalars and vectors that help physicists to effectively communicate their ideas within the scientific community. 

- Demonstrate learning of how to model the motion of objects using mathematics, understand the effect forces have on objects, learn about the important connection between force and energy, appreciate how forces cause deformation and understand the importance of Newton’s laws of motion. 

- Show how a resultant force acting on an object can accelerate the object in a specific direction.  

- Analyse the subsequent motion of the object using equations of motion.  

- Appreciate that several forces acting on an object can prevent the object from either moving or rotating. – Know that forces can also change the shape of an object and there are many other things that forces can do. 

- Appreciate how scientific ideas of quantum physics developed over time and their validity rested on the foundations of experimental work. 

- Study key ideas of quantum physics: electromagnetic waves (e.g. light) have a dual nature in that they exhibit both wave and particle-like behaviour.  

- Know that the wave–particle dual nature is also found to be characteristic of all particles (e.g. electrons). 

- Appreciate what electrons are and how they behave in electrical circuits.  

- Possess a basic understanding of wave properties. 

- Learn about electrons, electric current, electrical circuits, wave properties, electromagnetic waves and quantum physics. 

- Demonstrate detailed and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures in the specification. 

- Select information from the specification that is relevant to each question. 

- Organise and concisely communicate information, using appropriate scientific terminology. 

- Carry out simple calculations with no guidance. 

- Apply scientific knowledge, principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts involving a few steps in the argument when handling qualitative and quantitative data. 

- Give explanations that are lucid and well-structured. 

- Carry out most multi-step calculations, yielding results that are usually error free and expressed to an appropriate precision. 

- Use appropriate technical language and scientific terms in unfamiliar contexts. 

- Demonstrate a firm grasp of the scientific reasons for using a range of practical procedures mentioned in the specification. 

- Use significant figures, powers of ten, and SI units with precision and accuracy. 

- Manipulate algebraic equations fluently and accurately. 

- Select appropriate information and evidence (both quantitative and qualitative) to form a judgement or to reach a conclusion. 

-Analyse a broad variety of information and evidence, accurately selecting an appropriate range of techniques drawn from theoretical and practical areas of the specification. 

- Interpret and evaluate ideas, information and evidence using accurate explanations of complex phenomena within the scope of the specification. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to discuss the behaviour of a system when its parameters change. 

- Develop and refine practical designs and procedures. 

- Suggest and make observations and measurements with appropriate precision and record these accurately. 

- Discuss a range of issues fluently with knowledge and understanding. 

Year 13 (Biology);

In addition to the content requirements in the end points for Year 12 Biology: 

- Show knowledge of a range of practical experiences. 

- Develop and practice a wide range of practical skills throughout the course as preparation for the Practical Endorsement, as well as for the written examinations. 

- Understand the importance that organisms, both plants and animals can respond to stimuli. Show this is achieved by communication within the body, which may be chemical and/or electrical.  

- Demonstrate how fundamental communication is to homeostasis for the control of temperature, blood sugar and blood water potential.  

- Explain the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis and respiration, with an emphasis on the formation and use of ATP as the source of energy for biochemical processes and synthesis of biological molecules. 

- Understand the role of genes in regulating and controlling cell function and development. 

- Explain in detail heredity and the mechanisms of evolution and speciation. 

- Consider some of the practical techniques used to manipulate DNA such as sequencing and amplification and their therapeutic medical use.  

- Show knowledge of microorganisms in biotechnology. 

- Evaluate associated ethical considerations and develop a balanced understanding of such issues. 

- Demonstrate an appreciation of the role of microorganisms in recycling materials within the environment and maintaining balance within ecosystems.  

-Detail the need to conserve environmental resources in a sustainable fashion, whilst appreciating the potential conflicts arising from the needs of an increasing human population. 

- Consider the impacts of human activities on the natural environment and biodiversity. 

- Demonstrate detailed and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures in the specification. 

- Select information from the specification that is relevant to questions. 

- Organise and concisely communicate information using appropriate scientific terminology. 

- Carry out simple calculations with no guidance. 

- Apply scientific knowledge, principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts that may involve multiple steps in the argument when handling qualitative data. 

- Give explanations that are lucid and well-structured. 

- Carry out most complex quantitative calculations involving multiple steps yielding results that are usually error free and expressed to an appropriate precision. 

- Show an ability to structure multiple step calculations so that each step occurs in a logical sequence. 

- Use appropriate technical language and scientific terms in unfamiliar contexts. 

- Select and link information and ideas from different parts of the specification in order to give explanations that are usually complete and accurate. 

- Demonstrate a firm grasp of the scientific reasons for using a range of practical procedures mentioned in the specification. 

- Predict the outcome of practical procedures in familiar and novel contexts. 

- Select appropriate information and evidence from a range of data (both quantitative and qualitative) to form a judgement or to reach a conclusion. 

- Fully justify a judgement or conclusion using any given statistical information. 

- Analyse, with fluency and accuracy, information and evidence that is provided in a wide variety of unfamiliar contexts selecting a full range of appropriate techniques involving theoretical and practical areas of the specification. 

- Interpret and evaluate ideas, information and evidence using accurate and detailed explanations of complex phenomena. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to discuss the behaviour of a system when its parameters change. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to demonstrate insight into the development and refinement of practical designs and procedures; such insights will be wide-ranging and will cover most areas of the design or procedure. 

- Suggest and make observations and measurements with appropriate precision and record these appropriately. 

- Discuss a range of issues with knowledge and fluency using balanced arguments. 

Year 13 (Chemistry);

In addition to the content requirements in the end points for Year 12 Chemistry: 

- Show extended study of energy, reaction rates and equilibria, and the periodic table. 

- Show knowledge of the main areas of physical chemistry: rate equations, orders of reaction, the rate-determining step, equilibrium constants, Kc and Kp, acid–base equilibria including pH, Ka and buffer solutions, lattice enthalpy and Born–Haber cycles, entropy and free energy and electrochemical cells. 

- Show knowledge of the main areas of inorganic chemistry: redox chemistry and transition elements. 

- Study new functional groups and emphasise the importance of organic synthesis. 

- Understand NMR spectroscopy used in organic and forensic analysis. 

- Understand the main areas of organic chemistry: aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids and esters, organic nitrogen compounds: amines and amino Acids, polymerisation: addition polymers and condensation polymers, synthetic organic chemistry and further development of practical skills and the importance of modern analytical techniques in organic analysis. 

- Demonstrate detailed and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures in the specification. 

- Select information from the specification that is relevant to questions. 

- Organise and concisely communicate information using appropriate scientific terminology. 

- Carry out simple calculations with no guidance. 

- Apply scientific knowledge, principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts that may involve multiple steps in the argument when handling qualitative data. 

- Give explanations that are lucid and well-structured. 

- Carry out most complex quantitative calculations involving multiple steps yielding results that are usually error free and expressed to an appropriate precision. 

- Show an ability to structure multiple step calculations so that each step occurs in a logical sequence. 

- Use appropriate technical language and scientific terms in unfamiliar contexts. 

- Select and link information and ideas from different parts of the specification in order to give explanations that are usually complete and accurate. 

- Demonstrate a firm grasp of the scientific reasons for using a range of practical procedures mentioned in the specification. 

- Predict the outcome of practical procedures in familiar and novel contexts. 

- Use accurate chemical equations and structures in a range of contexts. 

- Select appropriate information and evidence from a range of data (both quantitative and qualitative) to form a judgement or to reach a conclusion. 

- Fully justify a judgement or conclusion using any given statistical information. 

- Analyse, with fluency and accuracy, information and evidence that is provided in a wide variety of unfamiliar contexts selecting a full range of appropriate techniques involving theoretical and practical areas of the specification. 

- Interpret and evaluate ideas, information and evidence using accurate and detailed explanations of complex phenomena. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to discuss the behaviour of a system when its parameters change. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to demonstrate insight into the development and refinement of practical designs and procedures; such insights will be wide-ranging and will cover most areas of the design or procedure. 

- Suggest and make observations and measurements with appropriate precision and record these appropriately. 

- Discuss a range of issues with knowledge and fluency using balanced arguments.

Year 13 (Physics);

In addition to the content requirements in the end points for Year 12 Physics: 

- Show knowledge of thermal physics, circular motion, oscillations, gravitational field, astrophysics and cosmology. 

- Demonstrate the impact Newtonian mechanics has on physics: how the microscopic motion of atoms can be modelled using Newton’s laws and hence provide us with an understanding of macroscopic quantities such as pressure and temperature, that Newton’s law of gravitation can be used to predict the motion of planets and distant galaxies. 

- Appreciate how we explore the intricacies of stars and the expansion of the Universe by analysing the electromagnetic radiation from space.  

- Consider how the development of the scientific model is improved based on the advances in the means of observation. 

- Demonstrate knowledge of capacitors, electric fields, electromagnetism, nuclear physics, particle physics and medical imaging. 

- Demonstrate detailed and comprehensive knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas, processes, techniques and procedures in the specification. 

- Select information from the specification that is relevant to questions. 

- Organise and concisely communicate information using appropriate scientific terminology. 

- Carry out simple calculations with no guidance. 

- Apply scientific knowledge, principles and concepts in familiar and new contexts that may involve multiple steps in the argument when handling qualitative data. 

- Give explanations that are lucid and well-structured. 

- Carry out most complex quantitative calculations involving multiple steps yielding results that are usually error free and expressed to an appropriate precision. 

- Show an ability to structure multiple step calculations so that each step occurs in a logical sequence. 

- Use appropriate technical language and scientific terms in unfamiliar contexts. 

- Select and link information and ideas from different parts of the specification in order to give explanations that are usually complete and accurate. 

- Demonstrate a firm grasp of the scientific reasons for using a range of practical procedures mentioned in the specification. 

- Predict the outcome of practical procedures in familiar and novel contexts. 

- Use significant figures, powers of ten, and SI units with precision and accuracy. 

- Manipulate algebraic equations fluently and accurately. 

- Select appropriate information and evidence from a range of data (both quantitative and qualitative) to form a judgement or to reach a conclusion. 

- Fully justify a judgement or conclusion using any given statistical information. 

- Analyse, with fluency and accuracy, information and evidence that is provided in a wide variety of unfamiliar contexts selecting a full range of appropriate techniques involving theoretical and practical areas of the specification. 

- Interpret and evaluate ideas, information and evidence using accurate and detailed explanations of complex phenomena. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to discuss the behaviour of a system when its parameters change. 

- Use knowledge and understanding to demonstrate insight into the development and refinement of practical designs and procedures; such insights will be wide-ranging and will cover most areas of the design or procedure. 

- Suggest and make observations and measurements with appropriate precision and record these appropriately. 

- Discuss a range of issues with knowledge and fluency using balanced arguments